In fractal electrodynamics, fractal geometry is combined with electromagnetic theory in order to investigate a new class of radiation, propagation, and scattering problems. When fractals are applied to antenna elements, the result is smaller resonant antennas that are multiband/broadband. These antennas may even be optimized for gain. A wideband and compact fractal Kokh antenna has been created by Babak Mirzapour and Abbas Ali Lotfi Neyestanak from Shahed University and Islamic Azad University in Tehran, Iran.
In this research, the fractal concept was applied to an enhanced Kokh antenna. These six Kokh island microstrip antennas are loaded by a fractal-shaped slot on a complete Kokh patch antenna fed by a 50-Ω coax feed. In simulation results for the proposed antennas, bandwidth was roughly 19 percent for the first iteration for –10 dB return loss. In the second and third iterations, respectively, impedance bandwidths of 19 and 17 percent were achieved. See "Enhanced Wideband and Compact Size Fractal Kokh Antenna," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, May 2007, p. 1077.