During pregnancy, the physiological changes that occur can result in complications for the mother and—in turn—the fetus. At the Microwave Tomography and Materials Research Laboratory's Department of Electronics at Cochin University of Science and Technology, in-vitro measurements of amniotic fluid were done using a rectangular cavity perturbation technique in the 2-to-3-GHz frequency range. Because this method can rely on a low-volume sample, it is appropriate for limited samples like amniotic fluid. The researchers—Anil Lonappan, Vinu Thomas, G. Bindu, Joe Jacob, C. Rajasekaran, and K.T. Mathew—specifically measured the dielectric parameters of the amniotic fluid. Different samples were taken as a function of gestation weeks. They produced a conductivity change at the end of normal pregnancies and consistent conductivity in complicated ones. That increase in conductivity was due to the presence of higher levels of glucose or protein in the normal amniotic-fluid samples. See "Non Surgical Life Saving Diagnostic Procedure Using Microwaves," Microwave And Optical Technology Letters, Oct. 2007, p. 2364.